### Dark Energy

Recent NASA observations reveal the presence of a non-zero cosmological constant (see the article “Flatness Problem”). The non-zero cosmological constant indicates the accelerated expansion of the universe. According to NASA scientists and other astrophysicists, the source of this non-zero amount may be dark energy, which permeates inward from empty space, separating the galaxies and pushing them away from each other. Thus, it is responsible for accelerating the expansion of the world. We will wrap up this section with a quote by NASA, following WMAP findings that proved the presence of the non-zero cosmological constant:

"Many cosmologists advocate reviving the cosmological constant term on theoretical grounds. Modern field theory associates this term with the energy density of the vacuum. For this energy density to be comparable to other forms of matter in the universe, it would require new physics: the addition of a cosmological constant term has profound implications for particle physics and our understanding of the fundamental forces of nature." ^{[22]}

Expansion of the universe requires more space and time. in a discrete model of the universe, we need space-time units to be added to the existing structure. Where does these units come from?

**Assumption S5**: Singularity contains enormous amount of energy.

### Information

The late John Archibald Wheeler believed that matter and radiation are carriers of a more abstract and fundamental entity: information.

A burst of energy cannot be the only factor that initiated our universe. Physical laws have also guided and shaped the universe. These laws—in other words, information—must have been present at the beginning, or nothing could have formed out of the chaos that existed. So, can we then assume that information is also a property of the singularity? And can we conclude that this property leaked into our universe at the time of the Big Bang?

As mentioned earlier, the concept of zero-point energy proposes that there is energy available at the zero point. The minimum amount of energy, carried by subatomic particles, is calculated as (1/2 h). In this formula, h is the Planck constant, which is equal to 6.64 × 10^{-34} joules per second. Later on, in this model, we take the Planck constant (h) to be a minimum amount of energy delivered from singularity.

Following the above assumption, we may use the following equations to show how the information is delivered to space-time. Planck’s constant has dimensions of energy multiplied by time.

h = J.s (joule-seconds)

On the other hand, the equation h=E/f denotes that the Planck constant has a dimension of energy (E) divided by a dimension of frequency (f).

F^{2} = M (L/T) ^{2} = ML ^{2} T -^{2}

Δf = 1/Δt = T^{-1 }

Δh = ΔE/Δf = ML^{2} T ^{-2}/T^{ -1} = M L ^{2} T^{-1} ^{[23]}

Where M is the dimension of mass, L is the dimension of distance, and T is the dimension of time. Here we may conclude that the properties of mass, distance, and time are included in (h), which means that information about these basic elements is contained in a minimum amount of energy (h) delivered from zero point.

On the other hand, the holographic principle asserts that the information of any region exists at the boundaries of that region. We can also assume that the information is located at the boundaries and projected to the region. Leonard Susskind stretched the idea of holography by asserting that the three-dimensional world is an illusion of some sort. He declares the real thing taking place out at the boundaries of space.^{[24]}

Formerly we have assumed that singulartity contains energy. Energy always accompanies a field. The field contains information, This is further grounds for the assumption that singularity contains information.

Holographic principle asserts that the information of any region of space exists in its boundaries. We can expand or retract the boundary at our will. We can limit the size of space to the Planck volume (the smallest volume possible). The information should exist at the boundary of such space. Can we therefore conclude that information is accessible in every miniscule of space-time?

Where are the other laws of physics located? They govern everywhere. Therefore, these commandments should be the property of a media which is accessible throughout the universe. In this model I have assumed the singularity as the medium.

### Black Holes and Information

Black holes are formed when big stars collapse. According to the theory, the mass of a big star condenses to the point where it forms a singularity. The condensed mass generated from the collapse of the star creates such a huge gravitational force that nothing, not even light rays, can escape from it. Please note that space, time, and matter are not the only elements that are swallowed by a black hole. Information about particles entering the black hole is also swallowed. There is actually a debate about where this information ends up after it enters a black hole.

Stephen Hawking believes that black holes evaporate by releasing energy (in the form of X-ray emissions) until they become small enough to “pop” and disappear. British mathematician Roger Penrose questions the destiny of the information that enters into the singularity of a black hole. According to him, there are three possibilities. It is either (a) lost, (b) stored, or (c) returned back to space-time. Information cannot come back because, as we know, there are now just X-ray photons returned to space-time during the evaporation. Therefore, it is not likely that all the lost information returns to space-time.

Roger Penrose favors the scenario that information is lost when it enters a black hole. This is a more reasonable conclusion, because the particles that enter the singularity are destroyed, meaning information has to disappear with them. Then again, this violates the first law of thermodynamics (the law relating to the conservation of mass and energy can be extended to the conservation of information). Therefore, the only remaining space-time solution is that information is stored in a “nugget” left behind after the black hole’s evaporation. However, Roger Penrose asks what use this trapped information has if there is no particle to adopt it.

Not every physicist agrees that information is not conserved at the black hole. Leonard Susskind, Gerard ‘T Hooft, and others using quatum mechanical interpretation believe that information remains at the event horizon and is returned. However, in November 2010, Penrose and V. G. Gurzadyan announced that by performing a detailed analysis of the cosmic microwave background radiation, they had found evidences that information actually disappears inside black holes.

If we consider singularity as an informational pool, then it can store and save particles information.

**Assumption S6**: Singularity is the domain of infinite information potential.

The above characteristics describe a kind of entity that I suppose can exist outside the space-time universe.

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