### Zero Point Possesses Energy

We have assumed that inside the Planck distance we are faced with zero size singularity. There is much evidence that zero point contains energy. The Casimir effect and the Lamb shift are proof for the presence of energy in zero point.

Casimir effect: It is shown that two parallel and closely placed metal plates are under attractive force. This force is called the Casimir effect, after Hendrik Casimir, who first proposed the existence of the force and formulated an experiment to detect it in 1948. There are energy fields and waves in the vacuum. The two metal plates interrupt the vacuum energy wave propagation in the distance between them. The eliminated waves are the ones that have wavelengths bigger than the distance between two plates. However, the longer waves reappear and propagate at the other side. Therefore, there is less energy fluctuating in between the plates than in the open space around them. This mismatch of energy creates an attractive force that keeps the plates together. The vacuum thus must contain energy fluctuation. In fact, every point of empty space contains electromagnetic waves and energy fluctuation. The Lamb shift provides further evidence of zero-point energy.

If zero point contains energy, and if we consider how many zero points exist in the universe, we can appreciate the incredible amount of energy that can be derived (or is being derived) from zero point. Robert Forward at Hughes Research Laboratories in Malibu, California, has shown that, at least in principle, we can extract the zero-point energy to produce electricity.In his derivations, Dr. Forward shows that when we use equations of quantum mechanics to determine the average energy of the vibrations of atoms, we get the following answer:

E = n (T) + hf/2

In a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator, the energy levels are quantized. The formula for energy state is as follows:

E_{n} = (n +1/2) h/2Π × w

E_{n} = n × h/2 Π × w+ ½ × h/2Π w

w = 2 Π f

E_{n} = n h/2 Π × 2 Π f + 1/2 × h/2 Π × 2 Π f

E_{n} = nhf + 1/2hf

Here, n is the quantum number (photon number) and f is the frequency of the photon emitted by exited atom. In this formula, if the temperature equals zero, the particles (electrons) vibrate at energy corresponding to the n = 0 state. Then, at T = 0, n = 0 because the atom is not excited (cannot emit any photon); therefore, the value of energy in this case is

E_{n} = 0 + hf/2 = hf/2

This is the lowest value of energy. Thus, even at zero temperature (or zero kinetic energy), quantum mechanics predicts that atoms will have a residual energy (if we let n go to zero there remains the hf/2). Physicists have been grappling with this for years, because there appears to be an infinite amount of energy available if f is allowed to increase without limit. Ever since Casimir predicted it and various other scientists verified it, this simple equation is really all that underlies the theory of zero-point fields and zero-point fluctuation. The zero-point field hypotheses suggest that there is an infinite amount of energy in zero point. Since zero-point energy (ZPE) was first introduced, many unexplained phenomena have been solved. New Scientist magazine, in the article “Why Atoms Don’t Collapse,” gives an impressive endorsement of the

importance of ZPE: “There is a dynamic equilibrium in which the zero-point energy stabilizes the electron in a set ground-state orbit. It seems that the very stability of matter itself appears to depend on an underlying sea of electromagnetic zero-point energy.” “Why Atoms Don't Collapse,” New Scientist (July 9, 1987), p. 26. The statement clearly asserts the involvement of zero point energy in fundamental structures of space-time universe.

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Bernard Haisch . from the California Institute for Physics and Astrophysics, readdresses the issue as follows:

"It is shown that the electron can be seen as continually radiating away its energy as predicted by classical theory, but simultaneously absorbing a compensating amount of energy from the ever-present sea of zero-point energy in which the atom is immersed, and an assumed equilibrium between these two processes, leads to the correct values for the parameters known to define the ground-state orbit. Thus, the ground-state orbit is determined by a dynamic equilibrium in which the collapse of the state is prevented by the presence of the zero-point energy. The significance of this observation is that the very stability of matter itself appears to depend on the presence of the underlying sea of electromagnetic zero-point energy." ^{[20]}

The common belief about the source of zero-point energy is explained below:

"Historically there have been two schools of thought: Existence by fiat as part of the boundary conditions of the universe, or generation by the (quantum-fluctuation) motion of charged particles that constitute matter. A straightforward calculation of the latter possibility has recently been carried out by the author. It was assumed that zero-point fields drive particle motion, and that the sum of particle motions throughout the universe in turn generates the zero-point fields, in the form of a self-regenerating cosmological feedback cycle not unlike a cat chasing its own tail.

This self-consistent approach yielded the known zero-point field distribution, thus indicating a dynamic-generation process for the zero-point fields.^{[21]}

The article attributes zero-point energy to the familiar matter particles that exist inside space-time. This kind of reasoning seems logical and objective and offers comfort. On the other hand, the thought that zero-point energy may come from beyond the boundaries of the universe exposes us to the frightening realm of the unknown. Therefore, most physicists prefer to accept matter as the origin of zero-point energy. Even if zero-point energy is introduced by quantum fluctuation, we would still need a source for that energy.

One may ask how zero-point is related to singularity. In the article “Singularity and Space-Time Universe,” I propose a kind of relation, asserting that we are exposed to singularity in each minuscule fabric of space (i.e., Planck distance). I would assumes that zero-point energy leaks through Planck holes.

The presence of zero-point fields is rejected on the basis that their effect has not been observed on electromagnetic radiation and other fields throughout space. If such a field exists in space-time, it should affect cosmic waves. This is why some physicists prefer to consider the zero-point field a “virtual field. ”Virtual particles are essential elements of current physical theories, such as electromagnetism. How are we going to explain virtual particles and fields? If we assume that zero-point energy and virtual particles originate from the outside the boundaries of space-time, we may find a solution to our problem. In this case, it sounds logical that for the habitants of an objective universe, the zero-point field and other undetectable elements of our theories would be virtual and implicit.

In the article “Mass and Gravity,”postulate a model where this out-of-space zero-point energy can be the origin of the mass and inertia of particles.

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