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Time

[15]The notion of time is mysterious. While space is clearly a part of objective reality, time is somewhat obscure. A clock actually measures how a sequence of events happens in space. That is how we measure time. Days are produced by the rotation of our planet around its axis. Seasons are brought about by different angulations of earth axis and its distance while orbiting around the sun. So, is time merely sequences of events in space? Einstein's special theory of relativity consideres time as the fourth dimension.

On the other hand, everyday experiences fool us into thinking of time as an arrow that extends from the past to the future and thinking that it is the same for all observers. Both these notions are debatable. The symmetric nature of all physical laws indicates that time should also be reversible, going from future to past. Classical mechanics, electromagnetism, special relativity, general relativity, and Schrodinger’s equation treat past and future symmetrically, putting them on equal footing. In 1978, John A. Wheeler, in a thought experiment known as a delayed-choice experiment, suggested that time is a two-way street. Later on, his thought experiment was verified by actual experiments in the Universities of Maryland and Munich.

Time is sensed by the sequence and storage of memories in our brain. Many experiments question the true nature of time. W. M. Itano and colleagues from the National Institute of Standards excited a small numbers of beryllium ions and left them to decay to their ground state. Then they measured the state of energy of the ions in short intervals. The measurement actually delayed the decay time, and this delay was directly related to the number of measurements. This is called quantum Zeno effect. (Does the act of measurement actually slow down the time? Does the water in a pot take longer to boil if we watch it?)

On the other hand, we know from Einstein’s special theory of relativity that space and time are not concrete; rather, they are flexible. The passage of time is different for objects with different speeds (this is known as the twin paradox).

According to our familiar definition of time, it started about fourteen billion years ago as Big Bang raised from the singularity. About the notion of time and singularity, John Earman writes, “As Einstein said, physical laws break down at space-time singularities, and for the Big Bang and big crunch they break down so strongly that it is physically meaningless to talk about before and after.”[16] According to the Big Bang theory, the notion of time does not exist in singularity. Time is a property of a space-time universe. In the energy-time version of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (to be discussed later), time gets blurry in the small scale. Assertion C3 also indicates that time as a computable element cannot exist in singularity.

Assumption S4: Singularity is not time-bound.

So far, we have discussed elements that cannot exist in singularity and therefore represent the notion of zero in singularity. What are the elements that can exists in this domain? Next, I will mention a few.

Energy

If we deny that the ultra dense matter was the origin of our universe, then we have to substitute it with another source. Energy, by definition, has the potential to create change in objects or fields. Energy is not tangible. You can not point on it and say this is energy. There are different forms of energy, such as kinetic, thermal, and chemical. The inflationary theory suggests that our universe started with a tremendous burst of energy. This initiated the initial rapid inflation of space.

Therefore,singularity should have contained energy. The followings support the assumption that the singularity contains energy.

Vacuum Energy

Vacuum energy is supposedly an underlying background energy that exists in space throughout the entire Universe. Virtual particles which are thought to be particle pairs that blink into existence and then annihilate are assumed to originate from the so-called vacuum energy. Their behaviour is codified in Heisenberg's energy-time uncertainty principle explained below.

The effects of vacuum energy can be experimentally observed in various phenomena such as spontaneous emission, the Casimir effect and the Lamb shift, and are thought to influence the behaviourof the Universe on cosmological scales (such as expansion of the universe).

Using the upper limit of the cosmological constant, the vacuum energy in a cubic meter of free space has been estimated to be 10−9 Joules. However, in both Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) and Stochastic Electrodynamics (SED), consistency with the principle of Lorentz covariance and with the magnitude of the Planck Constant requires it to have a much larger value of 10113 Joules per cubic meter.

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle (explained in the section “Quantum Mechanics”) can be extended to the energy of a particle in an ultra-short time-span. The Heisenberg equation is written as follows:

ΔE ΔT ≥ h/2Π In the above equation, h is the Planck constant, ΔE is the uncertainty in energy, and ΔT is the uncertainty in time. If the product of ΔTΔE is minimal, then we can write,

ΔE ≥ h/2 Π ΔT

If ΔT approaches zero, then ΔE ≥ h/0 approaches ∞

ΔT approaching 0 means the time span has shrunk to zero. At this scale, the energy span can approach up to infinity. This suggests that the energy itself at the vicinity of the time zero can reach up to infinity.

Singularity inside a Black Hole

A black hole is a region of space where gravity is so powerful that nothing can escape its pull. Once an object gets closer and passes a certain boundary, called the event horizon, there is no return. The matter disappears and its equivalent energy is dumped into the singularity.

As Wald states, “A black hole singularity can be appreciated both as the ultimate garbage dump, able to take care of any waste disposal problem without the need to recycle, and as a source of extractable energy.”[17] Everything is transformed into energy within the black hole's singularity.

Energy Fields

Stephen Hawking says, “The uncertainty principle of quantum theory means that fields are always fluctuating up and down even in apparently empty space, and have an energy density that is infinite.” [18] One of the assumptions of this model is that space is embedded and it is therefore in close proximity to the singularity. Based on this assumption, field fluctuation can originate from the encapsulating singularity. Consequently, we may assume that the energy inside the singularity is vibrant and is the origin for the fields in space-time (electromagnetic, gravitational, etc.).

16.
John Earman 
17.
Robert M. Wald, General Relativity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984) 
18.
Stephen Hawking, The Universe in a Nutshell (New York: Bantam Books, 2001) 
   
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