### Matter

Matter is the building block of what we call the “thing.”Matter appears as particle and wave at the same time. The wave aspect of it requires space to propagate. By definition, space originated and began to expand at the time of the Big Bang. Without space, wave does not have any meaning. The particle is the localized, condensed version of matter and has a mysterious relationship with mass. We define matter by its mass. Mass is a property that the thing obtains by traveling inside space-time ^{[10]}

The most popular version of the Big Bang theory, “Guth’s inflationary theory,” describes a sudden burst of energy and a rapid expansion of space-time. The theory implies that fundamental particles first appeared after universe expanded and cooled down a bit.

The fundamental particles, such as neutrinos, electrons, and quarks, appeared after the burst. The estimated number of particles produced at the time is 10^{80}.

According to most popular theories, mass appears while the thing travels in space. If we define singularity as the origin of our universe—but out of our space-time structure—we must understand it as a no-mass entity.

We can show the fact by using the effect of speed on the mass of an object: m = m_{0}/√ (1 - v ^{2}/c ^{2})

(a.k.a., the Fitzgerald-Lorentz equation) Here m_{0} is the rest mass (i.e., when the object is stationary in a specific frame of reference), m is the mass of the object in motion, v is its speed, and c is the speed of light. The effect of speed on the notion of time is obtained from the Fitzgerald-Lorentz equation as well (time dilation): t = t_{0} /√ (1 - v ^{2}/c ^{2})In this equation, t represents time. In these eqautions if we take m as the mass of particles inside space-time after the Big Bang (the time when space started and motion became possible) and m_{0} as the mass present at the beginning of time (t_{0}),

we come to the following conclusion^{[11]}:

m / m_{0} = t / t

m_{0} = m t_{0} / t

m_{0} = 0 / t = 0

Therefore, we can deduce that at time zero (time of the Big Bang), mass had to be zero. Or we may say that the singularity had to be mass-less. We may further conclude that where there is no time (i.e., beyond Planck time, the smallest amount of time possible), mass does not exist^{[12]}.

On the contrary, if we take the singularity as compressed matter—then gravity due to its immense mass would stop the inflation and creation of the universe. Paul Davies argues that in a state of maximum compression of matter, we need “some sort of outward force to overcome the enormous gravity, otherwise gravity would win, and the material would be still more compressed.”^{[13]} He then concludes that under conditions of extreme compression, such as which occurred during the Big Bang, there is no force in the universe capable of overcoming the crushing power of gravity. Elsewhere, John Earman suggests, “Perhaps, in entailing singular behavior, General Theory of Relativity is committed to empirically false predictions.”

According to the Big Bang theory, at the beginning of time, particles were not present. With the ultra-dense mass model, we have to assume that the matter turned to pure energy before the reformation of mass particles. We can assume as well that the universe started with a burst of energy, followed by the appearance and expansion of space. With this assumption, the starting point does not have to contain matter.

Furthermore, Assertion C3 (in “Complex Numbers”) implies that any measurable dissolves as it approaches zero point. We have assumed that zero represents singularity. Therefore, we may further conclude that the real value of matter has to disappear at singularity.

**Assumption S2**: Singularity does not contain matter (based on the common definition of matter).

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