### Exposure to Singularity

We have assumed that the universe is contained inside the singularity. Based on this assumption, our exposure to singularity in each centimetre of space is 1.6 × 10^{35} times. In other words, we are exposed to singularity in every minuscule of space, or everywhere. We may also claim that in every second we are exposed to naked singularity 10^{43} times. That means all the time.

Formerly, I posited that singularity contained merely energy and information, and it is a benign entity. How is it possible to be exposed to infinite energy and not experience catastrophe? The laws of physics tell us that if blasts of energy are confined to short enough intervals, these blasts would have no tangible effect in our space-time. Furthermore, it would not even be detectable. As mentioned, we are exposed to the singularity in each interval of Planck Time. This explains why the singularity is benign for us. The energy exposure is very brief.

Going back to the sponge analogy, the Planck distance corresponds to the size of holes in the sponge. This implies that our universe is not continuous; rather, it has a discrete atomic structure. In the 1970s Jacob Bekenstein proved it by his discovery, known as the Bekenstein bound. This law states that the amount of information within any horizon, forming a boundary, is finite and proportionate to the area of the horizon. If this is the case, the space inside any horizon cannot be continuous. It has to be finite, and as a result space has to be discrete.

### Loop Quantum Gravity

The loop quantum gravity Theory is the next candidate in line for the theory of everything (the first being the super-string theory). Lee Smolin, one of the main advocates of loop quantum gravity, mentions that black hole thermodynamics, loop quantum gravity,and string theory all agree that, on the Planck scale, space appears to be composed of fundamental discrete units. He suggests Roger Penrose’s spin network as one model for fabric of the universe. Loop quantum gravity calculations also suggest that space is quantized, that it is made of building blocks that are Planck distance—(10^{-33})3 or 10^{-99}—cubic centimetres. Thus it predicts that there are 10^{99} quanta of space in each cubic centimetre. It was suggested that this assumption may be testable.

The assumption goes that by examining the radiation from distant cosmic explosions, called gamma ray bursts, it is possible to test whether fabric of space is discrete. Lee Smolin and researchers from the Imperial College of London have modified Einstein’s theory to accommodate high-energy photons travelling at different speeds. Base on the modification, radiation with different energy should arrive at earth at different times. The difference is supposedly minimal, but for faraway bursts (3–4 billion light years away), it may be significant enough to measure. It was suggested that, the GLAST satellite, launched June 11, 2008, by NASA, has the required sensitivity for this measurement.

Renamed the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, its findings so far indicates that the fabric of space-time is smooth. This is what Fermi Telescope found on 2009.

"On May 10, 2009, Fermi and other satellites detected a so-called short gamma ray burst, designated GRB 090510. Astronomers think this type of explosion happens when neutron stars collide. Ground-based studies show the event took place in a galaxy 7.3 billion light-years away. Of the many gamma ray photons Fermi's LAT detected from the 2.1-second burst, two possessed energies differing by a million times. Yet after travelling some seven billion years, the pair arrived just nine-tenths of a second apart.

"This measurement eliminates any approach to a new theory of gravity that predicts a strong energy dependent change in the speed of light," Michelson said. "To one part in 100 million billion, these two photons travelled at the same speed. Einstein still rules."^{[5]}

Apparently other bursts have provided a similar result. one may ask if the radiation travels just along the space-time grains while bypassing the intervals why should there be a difference. In a discrete fabric model, there is one special case where the above kind of result can be obtained. In a case where there is no space in between the grains. In such a case the radiation travels on top of the space-time grains while bypassing the intervals. The Einstein's speed limit for electromagnetic waves pertains to speed in space. This is another indication to consider a non space-time entity as a medium.

It makes a lot of sense if space-time is digital. Craig Hogan, the director of the Fermi lab Particle Astrophysics centre is also currently working in an experiment to see if space is made of chunks, blocks and bits. Hogan and his colleague Aaron Chou are using a holometer to find out if space is discrete at the Planck scale. They also want to know if information comes as discrete, quantized bits at that scale 3.

## Summary

By looking at the benign, naked singularity as a medium that accommodates the core fabric of the universe, we can obtain a deterministic and comprehensible explanation for many paradoxes in physics. In this view, our material world and ourselves are connected to the singularity at all times and at all places. In this model, Singularity is not 13.7 billion years away (the birth date of the universe) or inside black holes). Singularity is here.

Space in this model is a complex Minkowski manifold, which means it has three spatial dimensions and one temporal dimension. However, each of these dimensions is represented with a complex number (containing an imaginary element i). As such it mimics twister theory, a theory suggested by Roger Penrose. But in my model, the imaginary element is shared in common between all four dimensions.

In this view, the outer boundary of space-time and Planck distance/Planck time is the interface where our universe meets singularity. I have also attributed the notions of zero and infinity to this entity. The concept of imaginary numbers is also accredited to physical activities related to proposed singularity.

The arguments presented are open for debate. The reader is encouraged to email his/her inputs to correct, modify or develop the contents. Please visit The Feedback Page, discuss and share your views.

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