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Here we see that energy increases as we approach the boundaries of the universe.

Energy at the Big Bang moment

According to the inflationary theory, the universe acquired an enormous expansion, which faded as the universe became 10–30 second old.

This is the De sitter model, which claims that a tremendous amount of energy set off the initial inflation of the universe when space, time and matter appeared. Energy had to precede the other elements. Doesn't matter if we believe in a discrete or continuous space-time, the energy is considered the creator of space and time. As we go further from the big bang moment the universe got cooler and energy got diluted.

Energy and Microcosm

The idea that smaller means more energy pervades modern elementary particles. The following are the fundamental forces of nature and their relative magnitudes:

Strong Nuclear Force 1040
Electromagnetic Force 1038
Weak Nuclear Force 1015
Gravity 100

As we can see as we move to smaller domains the force fields get increasingly stronger. What is more, when the universe was 10-39 seconds old, the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces were united. By the same token, while the above forces at larger scales differ greatly in magnitude, if we examine them at a distance of about 10-29 centimetres (ten thousand times larger than the Planck distance), the magnitude of three non-gravitational forces appear to become equal. According to current knowledge, in smaller scales, at least the magnitude of weak force and electromagnetic force increase to equal the strong force.

In small scale, we can write the Heisenberg Uncertainty relation again as follows:

ΔE × ΔT = h(Planck constant)/2π 
ΔE = h/2π ΔT

At smaller time interval, variation of energy increases, and therefore there is potential for high energy. When ΔT approaches 0, then ΔE can approach infinity.

So, at smaller time intervals, as we get closer to Planck pores, the energy can increase up to infinity. Zero-point energy is believed to be a huge source of energy, which is supposedly extractable.

Dark energy is mentioned as the source for expanding universe. supposedly it permeates form every minuscule of space-time. 


Energy and Microcosm

In the Einstein equation (c2 = E/m), as mass decreases, energy increases. The amounts of energy for molecules are 10 to 10-3 eV. The energy of electrons bonds in atoms is 10 eV. Inside the nuclei, the energy goes up to 108 eV. When particles are at rest, the energy level is up to 1011 eV. At the exit (Planck scale), the energy increases to an enormous 1028 eV.

Energy and Black Holes

When we pass the event horizon of a black hole, as space and time shrink, gravity crushes all in-falling masses. By definition matter converts to energy at the black hole singularity.

Black Hole

The above concept is in line with the wave-particle model, which has been described in the wave particle section. In the model, matter converts to energy upon exiting space-time. What if black holes are the big gates for energy exchange (the small gates being Planck pores, which are much smaller but infinitely more frequent)?

Energy and Compton Scattering

Feynman diagrams sketch the different ways two electrons or an electron and photon can scatter from each other.


In the diagrams shown above, although incoming and outgoing electrons have known energy and momentum, the particles in the ultra short time of scattering (inside the loops) can reach to infinite energy and momentum.

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