• images/banners/banner2.png
  • images/banners/banner3.png

Subatomic particles

Erwin Schrodinger takes the solidity of individual particles under question.

 "One can think of particles as more or less temporary entities within the wave field whose form and general behavior are nevertheless so clearly and sharply determined by the laws of waves that many processes take place as if these temporary entities were substantial permanent beings".[3]

It is generally understood that the characteristics of matter at the macro-scale are gradually violated as we approach particle physics. At that level, particles demonstrate their field character. Even the identity of so called particles undergoes questioning. For example it is impossible to differentiate one electron from another.

Matter as wave

Double slit experiment  is evidence for spectral nature of material objects. Electron, atoms or even large molecules are subjected to double-slit experiment. Even when there is just one object in the apparatus an interference pattern is created. When one slit is closed the interference is not seen. Art Hobson[4] declares,

“If we close one slit, the pattern shifts to the single-slit pattern behind the open slit, showing no interference. Thus each quantum carries different instructions depending on whether two or one slits are open. How does one quantum get instructions as to how many slits are open? If a quantum is an extended field that comes through both slits, there's no problem. But could a particle coming through just one slit obtain this information by detecting physical forces from the other, relatively distant,slit?”

In microcosm energy fields and energy prevails and the notion of matter fades away. The concept of creation and annihilation of virtual particles in vacuum is another evidence of appearance and disappearance of matter in the vicinity of internal boundaries

Matter, Big Bang, and Space-Time Singularities

According to the Big Bang Theory, matter gradually formed and appeared at the initial rapid expansion period. The beginning of time is stated at 10-43 seconds, having a temperature of 1019 GeV. After cosmic inflation, vacuum energy transforms itself into an equal number of particles and anti-particles of matter. Prior to the electro-weak era, a small excess of matter appeared over anti-matter. At 10-10 seconds, force and matter fields differentiated. At 10 -4 seconds, quarks joined and formed protons and neutrons. At 100 seconds, the nuclei of light elements began to form. It took 10,000 years before transition occurred from the domination of the radiation to that of matter.

We don’t have any trace of mass beyond the beginning; matter only appeared and gradually aroused to the known matter forms as the universe developed. Mass is also defined as being equal to inertia, which is resistance to change in velocity. If there is no space, as it is assumed at the beginning, there is no velocity, and therefore inertia loses its meaning.

Matter and Mind

We have considered the mind function as an analogy for the nature and function of the proposed singularity. Let us now use the same analogy to develop the concept further.

When we dream an intangible mass-less realm appears within our consciousness domain. Actual matter is absent in the mind realm but its image (information) is present. On the other hand Dreaming may prompt us to make a decision. What happens when we come to intention of actualizing our decisions? An intention originating in our mind domain (in informational form) initiates a series of actual incidences in space-time. We departed from our dream world and materialize our dream. Our consciousness then affects and changes the material domain. Here we see that the solidarity of matter disappears in entering mind realm and mind can influence matter by passing its effect into objective domain. The analogy supports the assumption that there is a grey zone between consciousness domain and material world.

Space and Black Hole

By definition, space and time get distorted and twist as they pass and enter beyond the event horizon of a black hole. They will be swallowed and disappear at the proximity of the singularity located at the centre of each black hole. Here we witness the dusk of space as we leave space-time. Andrew Hamilton from the University of Colorado describes how space and time is swallowed by a black hole:

"Free-fall coordinates reveal that the Schwarzschild geometry looks like ordinary flat space, with the distinctive feature that space itself is flowing radially inwards at the Newtonian escape velocity, V = (2 G M / r)1/2. The infall velocity V passes the speed of light c at the event horizon. Picture space as flowing like a river into the black hole. Imagine light rays, photons, as canoes paddling fiercely in the current. Outside the horizon, photon-canoes paddling upstream can make way against the flow. But inside the horizon, the space river is flowing inward so fast that it beats all canoes, carrying them inevitably towards their ultimate fate, the central singularity. Does the notion that space inside the horizon of a black hole falls faster than the speed of light violate Einstein's law that nothing can move faster than light? No. Einstein's law applies to the velocity of objects moving in space-time as measured with respect to locally inertial frames. Here it is space itself that is moving."[5] 

3.
David H. Levy, ed., The Scientific American Book of the Cosmos. St. Martin’s Press, 2000. 
4.
http://physics.uark.edu/hobson/ 
5.
Andrew Hamilton’s home page. Center of astrophysics and space astronomy. University of Colorado. http://casa.colorado.edu/~ajsh/schww.html. 
   
© 2008 UniversalTheory.org . All rights reserved.