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The Conservation of Energy Law

Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington famously stated, "If someone points out to you that your pet theory of the universe is in disagreement with Maxwell's equations—then so much the worse for Maxwell's equations. If it is found to be contradicted by observation—well these experimentalists do bungle things sometimes. But if your theory is found to be against the second law of thermodynamics I can give you no hope; there is nothing for it but to collapse in deepest humiliation."
Since then, no one has wanted to risk this humiliation. However, the uncertainty principle, quantum fluctuation, the origin of dark energy and dark matter, and many other new found phenomena force us to question the second law.

If we are so keen on the conservation law and would like to keep it anyway, then we have to expand it to contain a source of energy beyond space-time (singularity in this model). However, if singularity has an infinite amount of energy the law loses its meaning. Alternatively, we can leave conservation law for domestic economy and take space-time and singularity as trade partners. The conservation law works very nicely in macrocosm. We can leave the energy transaction to microcosm and boundaries.This is the arena where we encounter the most violation of the law.

Roger Penrose in The Large, The Small and the Human Mind writes,“All of the other schemes for quantum state reduction, which attempt to solve quantum measurement problem by introducing some new physical phenomena, run into problem with conservation of energy. You find that the normal rules of energy conservation tend to be violated. Maybe this is indeed the case.” [11]

Dark Energy

[12]Interpreting the conservation law in this manner frees our imagination, so we can create theories to explain some unexplained findings in astrophysics. The big challenge today is finding a source for dark energy. The model presented here offers a solution for the origin of dark energy.

The general acceptance of the Big Bang Theory by cosmologists does not exclude the possibility of the steady creation as a contributing factor in the formation and expansion of the universe. E= mc2 is used to indicate energy/matter exchange. Should not the continuity equation hold true everywhere in space? The expanding universe requires the formation of additional matter.

Closed Universe and Vacuum Energy

If we believe in a closed universe with no exchange possibility, then the vacuum energy should have been present from the day first. Such an energy would create the expansion of the universe. However, as universe gets larger, the vacuum energy would get diluted. As a consequence we would observe a more rapid expansion in the past that would gradually decelerate. this is against observations. The expansion is accelerating. Therefore we need to conclude that the vacuum energy is part of the boundary condition. In this model I have assumed it as the energy of the proposed singularity that constantly penetrates inside the space-time universe.

With the above definition, we can uphold the conservation law while defining the vacuum energy and the expansion of the universe. Conservation law has been predicted by Noether theorem suggested by Emmy Noether on 1915. Fifty years later John Bell , Steven Adler and Roman Jackiw noted that quantum effect such as sum over histories could spoil the conservation law. [13]. Here, we can explore the possibility that zero point energy fluctuation in space, can flourish and provide the dark energy for the positive cosmological constant and acceleration of expansion without breaking the conservation law.

Shape of the Universe 

The steady creation of matter also suggests a solution for Flatness Problem. What do we mean by flatness problem? If the density of our universe is greater than the critical density, in other words, If the gravitational force created by density of matter in the universe is greater than the expansion force, our universe is "closed" meaning our universe will eventually stop expanding and start contracting. If the density of the universe is equal to the critical density, then we live in a "flat" universe. Lastly, if the density of mater in the universe is less than the critical density, then the universe is "open". In an open universe, the expansion continues forever. Currently, the best-known value for the critical density is about 10-29 grams per cubic centimetre Recent measurements indicate that the actual density of our universe is very close to the critical density. Although the matter density of the universe is so close to unstable critical value between perpetual expansion and re-collapse into a big crunch, recent research suggests that the rate of expansion is increasing (1998 Perlmutter et al).

Steady Matter Creation

The proposed steady matter creation is needed to keep the density and compensate for the ever-increasing expansion of the universe. It is needed to keep the actual density of the matter in the universe close to critical density. To accept the steady formation of matter we do not have to deny the Big Bang model. Matter creation in the Big Bang moment and matter creation in vacuum can follow the same principle except that they are working in two different scales, big and small.Visible matter is a small portion of the matter present in the universe. It is believed that just about 5 percent of all matter is visible. About 25 percent is dark matter, which does not radiate, making it invisible. Visible and dark matter account for only 30 percent of the density. The other 70 percent is believed to be in the form of dark energy.

Penrose, Roger, et al.The Large, the Small and the Human Mind. Cambridge University Press, 1955. 
Neil Turok The Universe WithinHouse of Ananci PressInc. 2012 
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