### Pilot Wave

Max Born postulated that particle-waves are the probability of finding a particle within a location in space. The fact that the frequency depends on the number wavelength times Planck constant points to something different. Why should Higgs’ field give more mass to a particle with more frequency? The wave of probability does not seem to have an answer. However, pilot wave with variable acceleration can provide a convincing answer. If the particle actually is travelling through the Higgs field with a constant change of acceleration, then a smaller wavelength and bigger frequency can produce more resistance and therefore a more massive object. The scheme favours this model’s interpretation that a particle delivers h amount of energy during each wavelength.

On the other hand, the modified pilot wave in this model offers an explanation for finding detecting the particle near the peak of the wave. closer to the peak particle travels much slower. Therefore there is more chance to detect it around the peak.

### Masses of Particles

We may further conclude that masses of particles are not arbitrary. It is the product of energy from singularity (the Planck constant) and the frequency of the particle.

Assumption MG3. Mass is the product of the Planck constant and the Compton frequency of the object.

In light of the above, masses of electrons and other fundamental particles that are also considered fundamental constants are analysed and explained.

In the CIPA model, because the number of possible wave modes is enormous and increases as the square of the frequency, the sum of tiny energy per mode times the huge spatial density of modes yields a very high energy density. Yet this is not issue in this model, we confine ZPE delivery to individual particle-waves and not all possible waves in space-time. Therefore, this problem does not arise. This can happen only if ZPE exists out of the boundaries and just a portion of energy being carried by particles or fields into space-time.

### The Thing

There is some speculation that particles are essentially made of one entity (a thing). We may also postulate that the wave that carries the thing assigns a name to it and determines its character. I mean, matter, whatever it may be (a string? space-time deformation? bunch of energy? vortex in a perfect fluid-like medium?) can be essentially one essence. The wave it adopts determines its different characteristics. That is how we see it as different particle. The identity of a particle is specified by the energy and therefore the path chosen by the thing (wavelengths). In beta decay (transformation of a neutron to a proton), a d quark changes to a u quark and releases a W boson, which means releasing energy. By losing energy it follows a wave with longer wavelength and exhibits a new particle (up quark)

In the above model, we may postulate that in beta decay, a d quark with higher frequency loses some of it kinetic energy and therefore follows a path with a longer wavelength. This is when we call it u quark.

This may explain particles changing into each other. This is observed in accelerators every day. One may speculate that different particles are actually the same thing. We distinguish and differentiate the thing by measuring its Compton wavelength.

### Mass in our model and Higg’s Mechanisms

By definition Higg’s mechanism comes to effect whenever a particle’s speed or trajectory changes. The particle in this model alternate between acceleration and deceleration four times during each wavelength while following a sinusoidal wave. Therefore the pilot wave adopted and modified by this view is in line with Higg’s postulate. A more massive particle goes through more momentum change due to its higher frequency. This explains the direct relation between frequency and mass due to Higg’s effect.

### Dirac's Electron and This Model

In our interpretation, mass is defined by its Hamiltonian. This kinetic energy is obtained from singularity. Clearly, there are some similarities between this model and Dirac’s electron in the Higgs mechanism, although they are fundamentally different.

The birth and rebirth of electrons is in line with our model. On the other hand, the instantaneous speed of Dirac particles is always constant and equal to the speed of light. The variation in propagation speed comes from the zigzag motion of two components as they average out. In our model, the speed along the propagation line is constant, but the instantaneous speed of the particle changes between the propagation speed and the speed of light in two-dimensional wave plane. Vanishing and rebirth comes by entering and rising from singularity.