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MASS and GRAVITY

 

Gravity is the central dilemma of the theory of everything. The nature of mass is also somewhat obscure. In the paragraphs to come, I will offer a suggestion for the unexplained Planck constant and gravity. I will also propose an explanation for the nature of the mass of objects.

Mass

By definition mass is the resistance of an object to acceleration. This property is also called inertia. The true nature of mass is not completely understood. The standard model of particles postulates that subatomic particles by themselves do not possess mass. Mass is defined only by inertia. The Newton equation for inertia is F = ma, where m is mass of an object and F is the force needed to accelerate it with the magnitude a.

Gravity

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Newton’s law of universal gravitation denotes that objects attract each other. The force of attraction is directly related to the objects’ gravitational mass.

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Einstein's general theory of relativity, however, postulates that massive bodies curve space-time. Objects tend to follow straight paths in space. Since space is curved around massive bodies, the trajectories of objects follow a curved line. He also showed that gravity and acceleration are alike. What we interpret as gravity is in fact the movement of the objects along a straight line within an altered geometry of space-time. The curvature of space is proportionate to the mass of the objects involved. It is astonishing that these seemingly different properties of objects, namely inertial mass and gravitational mass, are equivalent. This phenomenon is called the equivalence principle. At this point, let us look at the main existing theories that attempt to explain inertia and mass.

Higgs Mechanism

The most popular description of the origin of mass is the Higgs mechanism. As mentioned before, the standard model of particles postulates that particles by themselves do not possess mass. The equation for mass acquisition through Higgs mechanism is given as follows: 

mi = Γ ћω2c/2πc2

where Γ is the Abraham-Lorentz damping constant. Ћ is Dirac's constant, and ωc is the cutoff frequency (the frequency at which a mass respond to and starts oscillating). Please note that, everything else being fixed, according to the Higgs mechanism, mass is directly related to the cutoff frequency of the wave-particle.

The Higgs postulate assumes a universal field, called a Higgs field, which is carried by the Higgs boson. Higgs boson is a hypothetical particle that supposedly introduces mass to other particles through the Higgs mechanism.

“The Higgs idea comes directly from the Physics of Solids. A solid contains a lattice of positively charged crystal atoms. When an electron moves through the lattice, the atoms are attracted to it, (therefore slowing it down) causing the electron's effective mass to be as much as 40 times bigger than the mass of a free electron.” (Miller 1993)

This concept has been extended to define the nature of mass acquisition by particles. The Higgs particles supposedly create crowding and traffic in an accelerating particle’s path. Although they are not affecting the homogenous motion of particles, they somehow resist against particles’ acceleration. This, it is proposed, is the reason particles resist changing trajectory and acceleration.

Recently the scientists at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) have observed a particle consistent with the long-sought Higgs boson.

On July 4, 2012, at the year’s major particle physics conference, ICHEP 2012 in Melbourne, the ATLAS and CMS experimenters presented their latest results in the search for the long sought Higgs particle. Both experiments observe a new particle in the mass region around 125–126 GeV.

“The results are preliminary but the 5 sigma signal at around 125 GeV . What we’re seeing is dramatic. This is indeed a new particle. We know it must be a boson and it’s the heaviest boson ever found,” said CMS experiment spokesperson Joe Incandela. “The implications are very significant and it is precisely for this reason that we must be extremely diligent in all of our studies and cross-checks.” (CERN Press Office 2012)

   
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