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Steady State Theory

The Steady State theory is a model developed in 1984 by Fred Hoyle, Thomas Gold, Hermann Bondi. In the Steady State model, new matter is continuously created as the universe expands. Therefore, universe can remain in steady and stable condition. After discovery of microwave back ground radiation, astrophysicists gradually distanced themselves from the theory in favour of the Big Bang model for the formation of the universe.

The Hubble Deep Field photograph taken in 1996 by the Hubble Space Telescope shows the most distant view known so far. It was expected to show the birth of galaxies, but instead shows galaxies looking remarkably like the present ones. This is in favour of steady state theory. The theory claims that universe has been steady during its history. Although the concept has been discredited by numerous evidences, perhaps a modification of that model can still be useful. Narlikar, Hoyle, Barbidge and some other astrophysicist introduced the Quasi Steady state theory to offer solutions for energy and matter creation through many small Big Bang events, which supposedly has been happening throughout the age of universe. Narlikar, Hoyle and Barbidge claim;

“Creation of matter is governed by a conservation law which operates to prevent space–time singularities, which otherwise occur in general relativity…Unless creation of matter is included in physical laws, the laws lack universality.”[7]

The amount required to preserve the steady state is undetectably small—about a few atoms for every cubic mile each year or roughly a few hundred atoms of hydrogen in the Milky Way Galaxy each year. The required dark energy to maintain the present expansion of universe also is very small.

Trying to deny the acceleration of universe expansion by steady state theorists proves to be a very difficult task. Acceleration has been shown by different methods and recently by WMAP observations. May be the theory have to be modified to accommodate the new observations. This may mean radical and fundamental change. Maybe we need a combination of modified steady state and the Big Bang scenario?

Nancy Kerrigan Problem

So far, supernovae observation revealed that:
Ω M + Ω Lambda = approximate to one
Ω Lambda – Ω M = approximately 0.4
The above figures are obtained by different methods like Supernova Observation, Cosmic Background Radiation studies, Gravitational Lensing and so on. Although the above numbers are not firm yet and still under investigation, they are the cosmologist's best guess.

According to the Big Bang Theory, at the beginning, the matter density was much higher and cosmological constant was much smaller. Gradually matter got less dense and cosmological constant increased. We are at the point where Omega M and Omega Lambda are almost equal. This creates a puzzling issue. Out of all the possible combinations, why should we live in such a period which is favourable to life? This is what Robert Kirshner called Nancy Kerrigan problem referring to famous figure skater after the attack instigated by skating rival, “Why me? Why now?”

Roger Penrose in his The Road to Reality writes: “The seeming coincidence that Ω lambda and Ω M are of the same general order of size seems like a puzzling coincidence.”[8]


Here we adopted the zero point fields as the source of dark energy. As mentioned before, the objection against the notion of zero point field is rooted to the fact that such a field is expected to have interaction with electromagnetic radiation inside. This effect is not observed. In this model zero point energy is out of space-time so it bypasses the above problem.
Previously, the question raised that; is there an alternative for cold and disperse universe scenario in the future? If we have constant energy penetration and matter formation in the universe, the future of the world may not be as disappointing after all.

The arguments presented are open for debate. The reader is encouraged to email his/her inputs to discuss, or question the contents. Please visit The Feedback Page, discuss and share your views.


Penrose, Roger. The Road to Reality. Jonathan Cape, London, 2004 
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