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14

Zero Point Energy (Vacuum Energy)

Ever expanding universe also implies that in a universe with a discrete fabric, space-time units constantly have to be created. In addition, to keep the matter density near critical value, matter has to constantly appear in the newly formed space. For the above to happen, ZPE has to constantly penetrate inside the universe, create space-time blocks, and matter particles. Energy permeation from every minuscule of space forces universe to exponentially expand. Can there be any other explanation for the acceleration? According to Donald Goldsmith, no:

“Unless we are prepared to reject the tenets of general relativity theory, the only additional term that may appear to produce an acceleration consists of…a cosmological constant of unknown size, but one with the properties we have described – namely, a transparent energy, un-tappable and untouchable, so far as we can tell, except by its tendency to make the universe expand more rapidly.”[4]

In 1990, Hideo Kodama of Kyoto University demonstrated the positive energy density equations. It was based on assumption that cosmological constant is positive. In this case, it:

“predicts a spectrum of quantum fluctuations in space-time. It also has a precise Planck-scale description, which makes use of very elegant mathematics connected to the invariants of graphs and knots.” [5]
Alfonso Rueda from department of Electrical Engineering California State University suggests that:

“Both mass and the wave nature of matter can be traced back to specific interactions with the electromagnetic zero-point field and possibly the other bosonic vacuum fields. Given this possible reinterpretation of fundamental properties, we suggest that it is premature to take a firm stand against the reality of the zero-point radiation field and its associated energy on the basis of cosmological arguments, especially given the possible relation between quantum vacuum, or zero-point, radiation and dark energy.”[6]

The Conservation Energy Law

The first law of thermodynamics (the conservation of energy) states that the total inflow of energy and matter into a closed system must equal the total outflow of energy and matter from the system. It predicts that energy can be converted from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. If we take the space-time universe as a closed system, we are faced with a big puzzle. How are we going to offer a solution for expanding force, if there is no possibility for creation of energy inside the universe? Non-zero cosmological constant require a source of energy readily available in every minuscule of space. Where does this energy come from? Whatever happened to conservation of energy law?

Some physicist try to disprove the presence of dark energy by suggesting models like modified gravity as proposed by Damien Easson or even dark geometry as speculated by by Gu-Je-An presented in Cosmo 4 in Toronto, in 2004. Others try to demystify its source and nature. In the proposed model, the so called dark energy is inherently built in into the scenario and because we took the universe as an open system, its source is explained.

4.
http://gregegan.customer.netspace.net.au/SCHILD/Connect/Connect.html 
5.
http://www2.yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~kodama/FileDownload/DownloadFiles/LN_GR2000.pdf 
6.
Haisch, Bernard and Alfonso Rueda. “Gravity and the Quantum Vacuum Inertia Hypothesis.” Annalen der Physik. Vol. 14, No. 8, 479-498 (2005) 
   
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